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Because this measure underestimates financial constraints for the poorest groups, we propose to consider a new measure: potential affordability as an attempt into build a more realistic basket trip. After analyzing potential affordability results, assessing its limitations and controlling by household composition we conclude that this is a very promising complementary measure since it helps to better understand the affordability gap for low-income groups.
Corrections All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. After the failed liberal revolution of in the German states,   a significant German immigration took place, laying the foundation for the German-Chilean community. Within years after the first Spanish settlement, nearly 95 percent of all Native Americans in Colombia had died. The majority of the deaths of Native Americans were the cause of diseases such as measles and smallpox, which were spread by European settlers.
Many Native Americans were also killed by armed conflicts with European settlers. Many Spanish colonists came searching for gold, while other Spaniards established themselves as leaders of social organizations teaching natives the Christian faith and the ways of European civilization.
Catholic priests provided education for Native Americans that otherwise was unavailable. Between and , 8. It has been suggested that the present day incidence of business entrepreneurship in the region of Antioquia is attributable to the Basque immigration and character traits. Today many Colombians of the Department of Antioquia region preserve their Basque ethnic heritage. Basque immigrants in Colombia were devoted to teaching and public administration. In the first years of the Andean Multinational Company, Basque sailors navigated as captains and pilots on the majority of the ships until the country was able to train its own crews.
The first and largest wave of immigration from the Middle East began around , and continued during the first two decades of the twentieth century. Due to a lack of information, it is impossible to know the exact number of Lebanese and Syrians that immigrated to Colombia; but for to , 5,—10, is estimated. Syrians and Lebanese are perhaps the biggest immigrant group next to the Spanish since independence. Those who left their homeland in the Middle East to settle in Colombia left for different religious, economic, and political reasons.
In , Barranquilla, Cartagena, Cali, and Bogota are the cities with the largest numbers of Arabic-speakers in Colombia. The mosque of Maicao is the second largest mosque in Latin America. Middle Easterns are generally called Turcos Turkish.
In December the United States government estimated that there were 4, Germans living in Colombia. Colombia invited Germans who were on the U. There are many annual festivals that focus German cuisine, specially pastry arts and beer. There are many Colombian-German companies focused on finance, science, education, technology and innovation, and engineering.
According to the National Population Census, 6. Classifying oneself as white is often done to claim membership to the middle class and to distance oneself from the lower class, which is associated being "Indian". For this reason the status of blanco is claimed by people who are not primarily of European heritage.
White Ecuadorians, mostly criollos , are descendants of Spanish colonists and also Spanish refugees fleeing the — Spanish Civil War. Most still hold large amounts of lands, mainly in the northern Sierra , and live in Quito or Guayaquil. There is also a large number of white people in Cuenca , a city in the southern Andes of Ecuador, due to the arrival of Frenchmen in the area, who came to measure the arc of the Earth.
Ecuador's Jews consists of Sephardic Jews arriving in the South of the country in the 16th and 17th centuries and Ashkenazi Jews during the s in the main cities of Quito and Cuenca. Ethnically, culturally, and socially, Paraguay has one of the most homogeneous populations in South America.
Grasmuck, Sherri, and Patricia R. The cost of producing these data is exceptionally low by the standards of social science research. Consensual unions in Latin America: Persistence of a dual nuptiality system. The data access system will recommend this version of the variable unless the user has specified an interest in inter-regional comparison. Couple and family relationships have changed in different aspects in the recent history of Latin America.
The exact percentage of the white Paraguayan population is not known because the Paraguayan census does not include racial or ethnic identification, save for the indigenous population,  which was 1. Due to the European migration in the 19th and 20th centuries, the majority of whites are of German descent including Mennonites , with others being of French, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese descent. According to the census 5.
This was the first time the census had asked an ancestral identity question. The majority of whites live in the largest cities, and are concentrated in the northern coastal cities of Trujillo , Chiclayo , Piura , and the capital, Lima. According to a genetic research by the University of Brasilia , Peruvian genetic admixture indicates A DNA study in the American Journal of Human Biology showed the genetic composition of Uruguay as primarily European, with Native American ancestry ranging from one to 20 percent and sub-Saharan African from seven to 15 percent, depending on the region.
Between the midth and the early 20th centuries, Uruguay received part of the same migratory influx as Argentina, although the process started a bit earlier. During , the country welcomed four waves of European immigrants, mainly Spaniards, Italians and Frenchmen. The demographic impact of these migratory waves was greater than in Argentina, Uruguay going from having 70, inhabitants in , to , in , and a million inhabitants by , its population thus increasing fourteen-fold in only 70 years.
Its results were based on "the explicit statements of the interviewee about the race they consider they belong themselves". These results were extrapolated, and the INE estimated that out of 2,, inhabitants, some 2,, were white In , a new Enhanced National Household Survey touched on the topic again, but this time emphasizing ancestry, not race; the results revealed 5. This reduction in the percentage of self-declared "pure whites" between surveys could be caused by the phenomenon of the interviewee giving new value to their African heritage, similar to what has happened in Brazil in the last three censuses.
Recently many European and American immigrants have entered the country seeking peace and security, or escaping from the pollution and voracious tax systems in their countries of origin.
Based on data gathered by the World Fertility Survey, this illuminating reference explores household composition in six Latin American countries and compares. Household Composition in Latin America (The Springer Series on Demographic Methods and Population Analysis) [Susan M. De Vos] on thearuffplicalex.ml *FREE*.
According to the official Venezuelan census, although "white" literally involves external issues such as light skin, shape and color of hair and eyes, among others, the term "white" has been used in different ways in different historical periods and places, and so its precise definition is somewhat confusing. According to the National Population and Housing Census, The Venezuelan gene pool indicates a Until the last years of World War II, a large part of European immigrants to Venezuela came from the Canary Islands, and their cultural impact was significant, influencing the development of Castilian in the country, its gastronomy and customs.
With the beginning of oil production during the first decades of the 20th century, employees of oil companies from the United States, United Kingdom, and the Netherlands established themselves in Venezuela. Later, in the middle of the century, there was a new wave of immigrants originating from Spain mainly from Galicia, Andalucia, and Basque country, some being refugees from the Spanish Civil War , Italy mainly from southern Italy and the Veneto region , and Portugal from Madeira , as well as from Germany, France, England, Croatia , the Netherlands, other European countries, and the Middle East Lebanon and Syria , encouraged by a welcoming immigration policy to a prosperous, rapidly developing country where educated and skilled immigrants were needed.
Some American media outlets have criticized Latin American media for allegedly featuring a disproportionate number of blond and blue-eyed white actors and actresses in telenovelas , relative to non-whites. CUBA: , whites; 28, slaves; 24, freed coloured people; total- , From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Race and ethnicity in Latin America.
Main article: Cubans.
Main article: White Dominicans. Main article: White Haitian. Main article: Costa Rican people. Main article: Demographics of El Salvador. Main article: Guatemalans. Main articles: Nicaraguan and Demographics of Nicaragua.
Main article: Immigration to Bolivia. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. June Main articles: White Brazilian and Immigration to Brazil. See also: Arab diaspora in Colombia.
Main article: Demographics of Ecuador. Main article: Demographics of Paraguay. Main article: Uruguayan people. Latin America portal.